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   2018| January-April  | Volume 31 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 14, 2018

 
 
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES
Attitudes toward mental illness among Caribbean medical students
Farid F Youssef
January-April 2018, 31(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239029  PMID:30117466
Background: There are limited empirical data on all matters pertaining to mental illness in the Caribbean but what little there is suggests significant levels of stigmatization exist. In this context, health professionals reveal at least equal to or only slightly improved attitudes to mental illness as compared to the general population. In addition, while there is evidence of improved attitudes among the population at large over the past decade this trend has not been observed among health professionals. This study, therefore, sought to assess medical students' knowledge about and attitudes toward mental illness as they traversed medical school. Methods: Preclinical medical students were surveyed and then retested in their final year of training. Students completed a knowledge scale, and the medical conditions regard scale comparing attitudes to four mental illness and three physical illness.Results: Knowledge about and attitudes toward mental illness showed significant improvement over the 5-year period. However, both preclinical and clinical students revealed significant levels of stigmatization toward mental illness despite improvements in knowledge. Students recognized the need to prioritize treatment for persons with mental illness but did not want to be personally involved in the treatment process. Discussion: Results highlight that significant negative attitudes still exist among medical students toward mental illness and these persist up until graduation. There is a need for further research into innovations and interventions to address this matter.
  6,963 758 1
Simulated patient and role play methodologies for communication skills training in an undergraduate medical program: Randomized, crossover trial
Silas Taylor, Samantha Bobba, Sophie Roome, Marrwah Ahmadzai, Daniel Tran, Dominic Vickers, Mominah Bhatti, Dinuksha De Silva, Lauren Dunstan, Ryan Falconer, Harleen Kaur, Jed Kitson, Jamie Patel, Boaz Shulruf
January-April 2018, 31(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239040  PMID:30117467
Background: Educators utilize real patients, simulated patients (SP), and student role play (RP) in communication skills training (CST) in medical curricula. The chosen modality may depend more on resource availability than educational stage and student needs. In this study, we set out to determine whether an inexpensive volunteer SP program offered an educational advantage compared to RP for CST in preclinical medical students. Methods: Students and volunteer SPs participated in interactions across two courses. Students allocated to SP interactions in one course participated in RP in the other course and vice versa. Audio recordings of interactions were made, and these were rated against criterion descriptors in a modified Calgary–Cambridge Referenced Observation Guide. Results: Independent t-test scores comparing ratings of RP and SP groups revealed no significant differences between methodologies. Discussion: This study demonstrates that volunteer SPs are not superior to RP, when used in CST targeted at preclinical students. This finding is consistent with existing literature, yet we suggest that it is imperative to consider the broader purpose of CST and the needs of stakeholders. Consequently, it may be beneficial to use mixed methods of CST in medical programs.
  6,391 910 12
The relationship between nursing instructors' clinical teaching behaviors and nursing students' learning in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2016
Kobra Parvan, Fahimeh Alsadat Hosseini, Samaneh Bagherian
January-April 2018, 31(1):32-38
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239044  PMID:30117470
Background: Clinical teaching is at the core of the nursing profession. However, clinical teaching may not empower students to gain clinical competency and skills. In this context, the performance of instructors is one of the main determinants of effective clinical teaching. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the relationship between nursing instructors' clinical teaching behaviors and students' learning. Methods: This descriptive, correlational study was conducted with 267 nursing students selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected using the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory, developed by Knox and Morgan. The questionnaire included two parts: the extent to which nursing instructors used teaching behaviors and the effectiveness of these behaviors on students' learning. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 19, and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed a significant positive relationship between the extent to which nursing instructors used teaching behaviors and the effectiveness of these behaviors on students' learning (P = 0.001). In terms of the utilization of teaching behaviors, the highest average rates were related to the dimensions of interpersonal relations and teaching abilities, while the lowest average rates were found for the evaluation dimension. With regard to the effectiveness of these teaching behaviors on learning, the dimensions of teaching ability and evaluation gained the highest and lowest average rates, respectively. Discussion: Instructors' capabilities have to be improved regarding the effective utilization of some behaviors related to evaluation, personal characteristics, and nursing competency. In this respect, the use of comprehensive teaching programs can be quite beneficial.
  5,860 633 4
Assessing the hidden curriculum for the care of patients with limited english proficiency: An instrument development
Alexander R Green, Claudia Rosu, Tiffany Kenison, Chijioke Nze
January-April 2018, 31(1):17-24
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239042  PMID:30117468
Background: Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) are a growing population in the United States at risk for disparities in quality and safety of care. Medical student competency to care for patients with LEP is impacted by a hidden curriculum (HC) that undermines the learning experience; yet to date, there is no way to measure it. Thus, we designed an instrument to assess this HC. Methods: Based on findings from previous qualitative work and input from medical students and experts in LEP and psychometrics, we developed a 23-item survey with four domains. We e-mailed this to 3rd and 4th year students from two medical schools in the US. We conducted principal axis factoring to determine the instrument's construct validity. Only items with a factor loading ≥0.50 were retained. Results: We obtained 111 complete responses. Twenty-two of the 23 original items were retained. Four factors/components emerged, which did not support the original proposed domains. Three factors loaded on a mix of role modeling, and learning environment, structural, and organizational variables, while the fourth factor retained two role modeling items. Based on the factor extraction solution, we restructured the instrument into three domains: role modeling, demonstration of effective systems, and consequences of structural barriers for patients with LEP (Cronbach's alpha: 0.81–0.95, total variance accounted for 53.7%). Discussion: The results led us to reassess the domain structure to create an instrument representing students' perceptions and context. Our instrument, the LEP-HC, will allow medical educators to investigate a specific and important HC and improve teaching about care of patients with LEP.
  3,907 428 1
Pre-University education curriculum reform and the generic learning skills of medical school entrants: Lessons learned from South Africa
Vanessa Celeste Burch, Cynthia N T. Sikakana, Geney Dalene Gunston, Sue R Whittle, Deborah Murdoch-Eaton
January-April 2018, 31(1):25-31
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239043  PMID:30117469
Background: Pre-university education curriculum changes may increase the skills and knowledge gap between secondary (high school) and tertiary (university) education that have been identified as having a major impact on the success of students from underresourced educational backgrounds. This study investigated the impact of extensive pre-university curriculum revision on the generic learning skills of entrants to South African medical schools, which admit students directly from high school. Methods: In this prospective study, students entering four medical schools during 2008–2011 were surveyed to determine their practice of and confidence in information handling, managing own learning, technical and numeracy skills, and computer, organizational, and presentation skills in the 12-month preceding entry. The 2008 entrants were the final cohort of the old secondary school curriculum. The mean levels of practice or confidence of entrants to the four medical schools, during 2008–2011, were compared using analysis of variance. The Bonferroni's test was used for further pair-wise comparison of cohorts of students either entering in different years or different institutions. Results: While entrants at the four medical schools did not demonstrate a consistent or sustained change in their practice of or confidence in each skill category over the period of study, there were some significant differences between entrants at the respective institutions. Furthermore, entrants to one medical school were consistently less confident of their skills, despite more practice. These findings are best accounted for by the long-standing history of inequitably resourced pre-university education in South Africa. Discussion: These findings highlight the need for close monitoring of the impact of pre-university education changes on the learning skill profiles of university entrants, in order to design effective university programs which enable students from diverse backgrounds to participate and adequately meet curricula demands.
  3,403 500 2
GENERAL ARTICLES
Understanding the fundamental elements of global health: Using the sen capability approach as the theoretical framework for a health needs assessment in deprived communities
Lilian Ndomoto, Arthur Hibble, Gladys Obuzor, Nthula Nthusi, Anna Quine, Prit Chahal, Sammy O Barasa, Njeri Nyanja, Charlotte Tulinius
January-April 2018, 31(1):43-47
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239046  PMID:30117472
Background: The health needs in poor communities are often dictated by data that is not relevant to the community. The capabilities approach (CA) offers a philosophical and practical way to frame and analyse data and apply it to a community using the World Health Organisation socioeconomic framework. This was part of the NHS Health Education England East Midlands Global Health Exchange Fellow Programme. Methods: A team of 2 Kenyan and 2 UK community clinicians worked together in deprived communities in Kenya and the UK using qualitative research methods to facilitate the communities to define and prioritise their health needs and to explore their potential resources and how they might achieve their needs sustainably. The CA was used in the data collection and data analysis phases. Results: The team of fellows gained personal understanding of the reality of the impact of social determinants on health experiences and outcomes. The CA offers the health systems and services a way to engage hard to reach communities with issues that they know to be important and are then able to prioritise. Clinicians who are taught in the evidence based style need to reframe their understanding of community needs if they are to be effective in their work. Working in this way can challenge their own values and beliefs. With planned support this can be a powerful developmental process and the CA is a set of principles that can be used to facilitate the empowerment of communities, the service planners and providers.
  2,807 380 2
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Enhancing medical student diversity through a premedical program: A Caribbean school case study
Helena DeCarvalho, Inna Lindner, Anamika Sengupta, Vijay Rajput, Gannady Raskin
January-April 2018, 31(1):48-51
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239047  PMID:30117473
Background: Physicians with backgrounds underrepresented in medicine (URiM) are more likely to practice in underserved communities. Recruitment into and assistance during medical education has the potential to increase the number of URiM physicians. This study analyzes URiM students' academic performance at a well-established Caribbean school with and without prior successful completion of the Medical Education Readiness Program (MERP). Methods: A retrospective analysis of premedical school requirements and achievements in medical school were performed for URiM students enrolled in Ross University School of Medicine between 2006 and 2012, through either MERP or direct admission. For MERP and non-MERP students, an independent sample two-tailed Student t-test was used to compare prerequisite Grade Point Average (p GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores. Chi-square analysis was performed to compare the attrition rates for MERP and non-MERP URiM students in the first years of medical schools well as USMLE Step 1 pass rates. Results: A total of 1299 students entering medical school directly (n = 981) or through MERP (n = 318) were evaluated. The mean MCAT (19.6 for MERP vs. 21.6 for non-MERP, P < 0.001) and prerequisite GPA (2.8 for MERP vs. 3.1 for non-MERP, P < 0.001) were significantly lower for the MERP students. A similar percentage of MERP and non-MERP students reached the 2nd year (83.0% and 80.9% respectively, P = 0.407) and 3rd year (80.5% and 79.0% respectively, P = 0.565) of medical school. USMLE Step 1 pass rates for MERP (90.6%) and non-MERP (92.3%) as well as USMLE Step 1 mean scores (208.9 and 210.0 for MERP and non-MERP, respectively) were also comparable. Discussion: MERP-like programs can help URiM students with lower undergraduate scores succeed in medical school.
  2,619 371 -
GENERAL ARTICLES
A review of mastery learning: The roseman model as an illustrative case
Martin S Lipsky, Catherine J Cone
January-April 2018, 31(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239045  PMID:30117471
Background: An educational method gaining acceptance in health profession's training is mastery learning. Mastery learning requires learners to demonstrate essential knowledge and skills measured against rigorously set standards without regard to time. The key elements of mastery learning include focus on a single subject, short curricular blocks, setting specific objectives, using frequent feedback, deliberative practice, and demonstrating mastery before moving onto the next subject. Roseman University of the Health Sciences College of Pharmacy (COP) developed and delivered an accelerated mastery learning curriculum designed to develop knowledge and skills through active learning. Methods: The COP uses a mastery model for its PharmD program. The didactic curriculum is divided into 2-week assessment blocks focusing on a single subject. Students must demonstrate mastery, defined as ≥90% on an assessment, to pass a block. Students failing a block assessment receive feedback and a second opportunity to pass. Students failing their repeat assessment continue onto the next block, but require summer remediation before moving onto the next year. Results: National pass rates for the US pharmacy board examination ranged between 92.6% and 96.9% during the 2010–2015 period, while the COP scores ranged from 93.0% to 99.0% and fell below national pass rates on only one occasion. The attrition rate was 6.5%, below the national rate of 10.8%. Students reported an overall satisfaction with their education of 3.82 (Likert scale 1–5) and 4.04 for the block system. Discussion: Overall, the Roseman University mastery model is successful. Students report high levels of satisfaction and outcomes on examinations and attrition compares favorably to national averages.
  2,465 411 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
SNAPPS facilitates clinical reasoning in outpatient settings
Vishakha Jain, Lalit Waghmare, Tripti Shrivastav, Chandrashekhar Mahakalkar
January-April 2018, 31(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239052  PMID:30117478
  2,213 401 3
EDITORIAL
Co-Editors' Notes 31:1
Michael Glasser, Danette McKinley, Maaike Flinkenflögel
January-April 2018, 31(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239028  PMID:30117465
  2,061 310 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
What do medical students think about health-care policy education?
Christos Theophanous, Pamela Peters, Patrick O'Brien, Michael R Cousineau
January-April 2018, 31(1):54-55
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239049  PMID:30117475
  2,085 172 -
Do perceptions about educational environment influence academic performance? A cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students in Madurai, South India
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Soundappan Kathirvel, G Sushmitha
January-April 2018, 31(1):52-53
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239048  PMID:30117474
  1,682 242 -
Scientific misconduct in publication among medical students: Education and role model
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-April 2018, 31(1):56-56
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239050  PMID:30117476
  1,639 245 1
Resident-to-resident handoff of primary care practice when transitioning to an inpatient rotation
Stephanie K Nothelle, Laura A Hanyok, Scott Wright, Colleen Christmas
January-April 2018, 31(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239051  PMID:30117477
  1,474 154 -
OBITUARY
Obituary - EfH Bernard Groosjohan
Michael Glasser, Danette McKinley, Urvi Doshi, Payal Bansal, Maaike Flinkenflögel
January-April 2018, 31(1):61-61
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.239053  PMID:30117479
  1,159 108 -
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