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   2014| September-December  | Volume 27 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 26, 2015

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Reducing obesity prejudice in medical education
Kabir Matharu, Johanna F Shapiro, Rachel R Hammer, RL Kravitz, Machelle D Wilson, Faith T Fitzgerald
September-December 2014, 27(3):231-237
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152176  PMID:25758385
Background: Healthcare worker attitudes toward obese individuals facilitate discrimination and contribute to poor health outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated medical student bias toward obese individuals, but few have examined effects of the educational environment on these prejudicial beliefs. We sought to determine whether an innovative educational intervention (reading a play about obesity) could diminish obesity prejudice relative to a standard medical lecture. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial enrolling medical students (n = 129) from three universities. Students were assigned to play-reading or a standard lecture. Explicit attitudes and implicit bias toward obese individuals were assessed prior to intervention and after four months. Results: At baseline, students demonstrated moderate explicit and implicit bias toward obese people despite high scores on empathy. Students randomized to the play-reading group had significantly decreased explicit fat bias (P = 0.01) at follow-up, while students in the lecture group showed increased endorsement of a prescriptive model of care at the expense of a patient-centered approach (P = 0.03). There was a significant increase in empathy for those in both the theater (P = 0.007) and lecture group (P = 0.02). The intervention had no significant effect on implicit bias or regard for obesity as a civil rights issue. Discussion: Dramatic reading may be superior to traditional medical lectures for showcasing patient rights and preferences. The present study demonstrates for the first time that play-reading diminishes conscious obesity bias. Further research should determine whether nontraditional methods of instruction promote improved understanding of and care for obese patients.
  11,925 1,973 22
Online Faculty Development for Creating E-learning Materials
Virginia Niebuhr, Bruce Niebuhr, Julie Trumble, Mary Jo Urbani
September-December 2014, 27(3):255-261
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152186  PMID:25758389
Background: Faculty who want to develop e-learning materials face pedagogical challenges of transforming instruction for the online environment, especially as many have never experienced online learning themselves. They face technical challenges of learning new software and time challenges of not all being able to be in the same place at the same time to learn these new skills. The objective of the Any Day Any Place Teaching (ADAPT) faculty development program was to create an online experience in which faculty could learn to produce e-learning materials. Methods: The ADAPT curriculum included units on instructional design, copyright principles and peer review, all for the online environment, and units on specific software tools. Participants experienced asynchronous and synchronous methods, including a learning management system, PC-based videoconferencing, online discussions, desktop sharing, an online toolbox and optional face-to-face labs. Project outcomes were e-learning materials developed and participants' evaluations of the experience. Likert scale responses for five instructional units (quantitative) were analyzed for distance from neutral using one-sample t-tests. Interview data (qualitative) were analyzed with assurance of data trustworthiness and thematic analysis techniques. Results: Participants were 27 interprofessional faculty. They evaluated the program instruction as easy to access, engaging and logically presented. They reported increased confidence in new skills and increased awareness of copyright issues, yet continued to have time management challenges and remained uncomfortable about peer review. They produced 22 new instructional materials. Discussion: Online faculty development methods are helpful for faculty learning to create e-learning materials. Recommendations are made to increase the success of such a faculty development program.
  9,922 1,155 21
A 360-degree evaluation of the communication and interpersonal skills of medicine resident physicians in Pakistan
Muhammad Tariq, John Boulet, Afaq Motiwala, Nida Sajjad, Syeda Kauser Ali
September-December 2014, 27(3):269-276
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152188  PMID:25758391
Background: To provide high-quality patient care, effective communication and interpersonal skills are necessary for physicians. A 360-degree evaluation of residents in the department of medicine was conducted to assess their interpersonal and communication skills. The measurement properties and utility of the multi-source ratings were investigated. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment of a cohort of Internal Medicine residents was conducted at the Aga Khan Medical University in Pakistan. Every resident (n = 49) was evaluated by eight raters, including physicians, nurses and unit staff. Each resident also completed a self-evaluation. Evidence to support the validity of the ratings was gathered by exploring performance differences amongst more- and less-experienced providers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test for differences in mean scores, both for rater type and experience (residency year). Generalizability theory was employed to estimate the reliability of the ratings. Results: We received 367/441 (83.2%) completed forms. There was a significant effect attributable to rater source (F = 5.2, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in mean scores for residents at different levels of training. The mean resident self-assessment scores were significantly lower than those provided by faculty (P < 0.01). Based on eight raters, the reliability of the ratings was moderate (ρ2 = 0.39). Discussion: The 360-degree evaluation technique can be used to measure the communication and interpersonal skills of residents. It can also provide important data to guide resident feedback. Health care providers and staff who interact with residents on regular basis can, as a group provide moderately consistent judgments of their abilities.
  9,528 1,298 12
The perceived relevance of tooth carving in dental education: Views of practicing dentists and faculty in West India
Meghanand T Nayak, Priya Sahni, Abhishek Singhvi, Anjali Singh
September-December 2014, 27(3):238-242
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152177  PMID:25758386
Background: Teaching dental anatomy includes observation and analysis of natural teeth and carving wax models to accurately reproduce the morphology of teeth. The aim of this survey was to assess the importance of tooth carving in its relevance to clinical practice in the opinion of practicing clinicians throughout west India. Methods: Faculties of 27 dental colleges and dental practitioners of the Rajasthan and Gujarat states in western India were contacted through e-mail, telephone and mail. A total of 1866 subjects were contacted of which 1722 responded. The perceived relevance of tooth carving in clinical practice was assessed through a 14-item multiple choice questionnaire. Questions ranged from the queries of clinicians' interest in tooth carvings, their opinion of the practical significance of this exercise during their training to their clinical practice, and their recommendations regarding tooth carving. Results: A total of 69.1% of respondent practitioners believe that the tooth carving exercise influences their clinical practice, and 93.4% recommend tooth carving to be continued in the undergraduate dental curriculum. Discussion: The results indicated that most dentists in west India valued what they learned through tooth carving and that they use this knowledge in their practice. This information supports the continued teaching of tooth carving in the undergraduate dental curriculum.
  9,767 965 3
Co-Editors' Notes 27:3
Donald Pathman, Michael Glasser
September-December 2014, 27(3):227-228
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152171  PMID:25758383
  3,898 4,683 -
Self-directed learning readiness among fifth semester MBBS students in a teaching institution of South India
Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, KC Premarajan, Archana Ramalingam, S Iswarya, A Sujiv, L Subitha
September-December 2014, 27(3):289-292
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152193  PMID:25758394
Background: Lifelong learning is a skill that must be acquired by medical graduates and proposes that students take the responsibility for learning process. The present study was carried out to measure readiness for self-directed learning among fifth semester MBBS studentsin a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Readiness assessment was carried out among 87 fifth semester MBBS students using Fishers' 40-item self-directed learning readiness score (SDLRS) instrument after taking informed written consent. A total of 40 items were classified into three domains: Self-management (9 items), desire for learning (16 items) and self-control (15 items). Institute scientific society and ethical committee clearance was obtained. The data were entered and analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used to elicit relationship between readiness assessment and gender, presence of a physician in family and area of residence. Results: Out of 87 students, 64 (73.5%) students consented to be assessed for readiness toward self-directed learning. The mean SDLRS score was 140.4 ± 24.4, with 19 students (30%) scoring more than 150 indicating high readiness.The mean scores in the three domains of self-management, desire for learning and self-control were 38.8 ± 9.8, 47.3 ± 6.9 and 54.3 ± 10.4, respectively. Males had a higher readiness for self-directed learning than females (P = 0.045). Discussion: Self-directed learning scores were lower among our MBBS students than reported elsewhere in the literature.
  7,371 1,037 12
Introduction of Mini-CEX in undergraduate dental education in India
Rohit Behere
September-December 2014, 27(3):262-268
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152187  PMID:25758390
Background: Some assessment methods of clinical learners have limitations so that students might not reflect their performance in actual clinical situations. Educational research has so far not yielded a single 'gold-standard' performance assessment tool. Mini-CEX (clinical evaluation exercise) is an instrument intended for work-based assessment of actual clinical performance, including a range of skills like communication and humanistic qualities. It involves direct observation of real patient encounters followed by one-on-one structured feedback sessions between assessors and the trainees. Mini-CEX has already found wide acceptance in medical education but is largely untested in dental education. Methods: Twelve dental undergraduate students underwent one mini-CEX encounter each. Four teachers performed the roles of assessors, directly observing the students and rating their performance using the standardized mini-CEX rating form. A systematic feedback session then took place, following which students' and teachers' perception of the mini-CEX was sought through structured questionnaires. Results: Almost all students appreciated that their communication skills were assessed, but some felt that the presence of a teacher was intimidating. They felt that the constructive feedback helped them reinforce the skills that they did well. The assessors found planning for mini-CEX time consuming and also felt that that their presence had an impact on the students' performance. However, teachers reported that the mini-CEX allows them to assess students' professionalism and communication skills, which are important in dentistry. Discussion: Data from this pilot study supports the use of mini-CES in dental education, but still the need for wider studies remains. It also explains the ways in which undergraduate dental students and teachers find the mini-CEX useful and how it could be improved and used more effectively.
  6,944 1,168 15
Implementing a skillslab training program in a developing country
Trung Quang Tran, Albert Scherpbier, Jan van Dalen, Dung van Do, E Pamela Wright
September-December 2014, 27(3):243-248
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152181  PMID:25758387
Background: Eight skills laboratories (skillslabs) were established by consensus of Vietnamese medical universities, with international support. A national list of basic skills needed for medical practice and suitable for skillslab training was developed; models, medical and teaching equipment were supplied; learning material was developed and core staff and teachers were trained. This study was designed to assess how closely eight schools in Vietnam came to implementing all recommended skills on list developed by educators of that country, and identify the facilitating factors and barriers to skillslab use within the country's largest school. Methods: Data were collected from reports from the eight skillslabs. Students and trainers from the largest university were surveyed for their perceptions of the quality of training on eight selected skills. Results of students' skill assessments were gathered, and focus group discussions with trainers were conducted. SPSS 16 was used to analyze the quantitative data and cluster analysis was used to test for differences. Results: Only one medical school was able to train all 56 basic skills proposed by consensus among the eight Vietnamese medical universities. Deeper exploration within the largest school revealed that its skillslab training was successful for most skills, according to students' postprogram skills assessment and to students' and trainers' perceptions. However, through focus group discussions we learned that the quantity of training aids was perceived to be insufficient; some models/manikins were inappropriate for training; more consideration was needed in framing the expected requirements of students within each skill; too little time was allocated for the training of one of the eight skills investigated; and further curriculum development is needed to better integrate the skills training program into the broader curriculum. Discussion: The fact that one medical school could teach all skills recommended for skillslab training demonstrates that all Vietnamese schools may be similarly able to teach the basic skills of the national consensus list. But as of now, it remains challenging for most schools in this developing country to fully implement a national skillslab training program.
  5,771 793 -
A framework for revising preservice curriculum for nonphysician clinicians: The mozambique experience
Fernanda Freistadt, Erin Branigan, Chris Pupp, Marzio Stefanutto, Carlos Bambo, Maria Alexandre, Sandro O Pinheiro, Ruth Ballweg, Martinho Dgedge, Gabrielle O'Malley, Justine Strand de Oliveira
September-December 2014, 27(3):283-288
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152190  PMID:25758393
Mozambique, with approximately 0.4 physicians and 4.1 nurses per 10,000 people, has one of the lowest ratios of health care providers to population in the world. To rapidly scale up health care coverage, the Mozambique Ministry of Health has pushed for greater investment in training nonphysician clinicians, Tιcnicos de Medicina (TM). Based on identified gaps in TM clinical performance, the Ministry of Health requested technical assistance from the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH) to revise the two-and-a-half-year preservice curriculum. A six-step process was used to revise the curriculum: (i) Conducting a task analysis, (ii) defining a new curriculum approach and selecting an integrated model of subject and competency-based education, (iii) revising and restructuring the 30-month course schedule to emphasize clinical skills, (iv) developing a detailed syllabus for each course, (v) developing content for each lesson, and (vi) evaluating implementation and integrating feedback for ongoing improvement. In May 2010, the Mozambique Minister of Health approved the revised curriculum, which is currently being implemented in 10 training institutions around the country. Key lessons learned: (i) Detailed assessment of training institutions' strengths and weaknesses should inform curriculum revision. (ii) Establishing a Technical Working Group with respected and motivated clinicians is key to promoting local buy-in and ownership. (iii) Providing ready-to-use didactic material helps to address some challenges commonly found in resource-limited settings. (iv) Comprehensive curriculum revision is an important first step toward improving the quality of training provided to health care providers in developing countries. Other aspects of implementation at training institutions and health care facilities must also be addressed to ensure that providers are adequately trained and equipped to provide quality health care services. This approach to curriculum revision and implementation teaches several key lessons, which may be applicable to preservice training programs in other less developed countries.
  4,970 1,511 4
Reviewers of Education for Health
Michael Glasser, Donald Pathman, Payal Bansal, Gaurang Baxi
September-December 2014, 27(3):229-230
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152173  PMID:25758384
  3,901 2,111 -
The awareness and attitudes of students of one indian dental school toward information technology and its use to improve patient care
Vinod R Jathanna, Ramya V Jathanna, Roopalekha Jathanna
September-December 2014, 27(3):293-296
Background: Many obstacles need to be overcome if digital and electronic technologies are to be fully integrated in the operation of dental clinics in some countries. These obstacles may be physical, technical, or psychosocial barriers in the form of perceptions and attitudes related to software incompatibilities, patient privacy, and interference with the patient-practitioner relationship. The objectives of the study are to assess the perceptions of Indian dental students of one school toward the usefulness of digital technologies in improving dental practice; their willingness to use digital and electronic technologies; the perceived obstacles to the use of digital and electronic technologies in dental care setups; and their attitudes toward Internet privacy issues. Methods: The study population consisted of 186 final year undergraduate dental students from the A. B. Shetty Memorial institute of Dental Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Mangalore, India. Survey data were analyzed descriptively . Results: Most students indicated that information technology enhances patient satisfaction, the quality of dental record, diagnosis, treatment planning, and doctor-doctor communication. Cost of equipment and need for technical training were regarded as major obstacles by substantial proportions of respondents. Discussion: Most dental students at our school feel that the information technology will support their decision making in diagnoses and devising effective treatment plans, which in turn increase patient satisfaction and quality of care. Students also perceived that lack of technical knowledge and the high cost of implementation are major barriers to developing information technology in India.
  4,955 788 -
The intricate relationship between a medical school and a teaching hospital: A case study in Uganda
Aloysius Gonzaga Mubuuke, Francis Businge, Emmanuel Mukule
September-December 2014, 27(3):249-254
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152183  PMID:25758388
Background: The relationship between medical schools and teaching hospitals is full of opportunities but also challenges even though they have complementary goals that could enhance each other. Although medical schools and teaching hospitals may face some similar challenges around the world, there could be context-specific observations that differ in resource-rich versus resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that are perceived to have influenced the relationship between a medical school and a teaching hospital in Uganda, a resource-limited setting. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which key informant individual interviews were conducted with senior administrators and senior staff members of the Mulago Hospital and Makerere University Medical School. The interviews explored factors perceived to have favoured the working relationship between the two institutions, challenges faced and likely future opportunities. Both quantitative and qualitative data were generated. Thematic analysis was used with the qualitative data. Results: Respondents reported a strained relationship between the two institutions, with unfavourable factors far outweighing the favourable factors influencing the relationship. Key negative reported factors included having different administrative set-ups, limited opportunities to share funds and to forge research collaborations, unexploited potential of sharing human resources to address staff shortages, as well as a lack of a memorandum of understanding between the two institutions. Discussion: This study identifies barriers in the existing relationship between a teaching hospital and medical college in a resource-poor country. It proposes a collaborative model, rather than competitive model, for the two institutions that may work in both resource-limited and resource-rich settings.
  5,203 526 4
Overcoming challenges to develop pediatric postgraduate training programs in low- and middle-income countries
Lakshmi Ganapathi, Yolanda Martins, David Schumann, Christiana Russ
September-December 2014, 27(3):277-282
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152189  PMID:25758392
Background: Interest is growing in strengthening postgraduate medical education in low-income countries. The purpose of this study was to understand how postgraduate pediatric training programs are developed in countries with no or few pediatric training opportunities. The authors sought to describe and compare a purposive sample of such new programs, and identify challenges and solutions for successful program establishment and sustainability. Methods: The authors queried national pediatric email lists and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited pediatric residency programs in the United States to identify four pediatric training programs that met study criteria. All four programs responded to a questionnaire with quantitative and qualitative components. Qualitative responses were analyzed for themes. Results: Four centers - in Kenya, Laos, Eritrea and Cambodia - met study criteria. Reported challenges to program development and sustainability centered on faculty development and retention, training in pediatric subspecialties, creating pipelines for applicants and graduates, and funding. These themes were used to develop a logic model, which provides a framework for planning, implementing and evaluating new postgraduate general pediatric training program in low-income countries. Discussion: This study compares four postgraduate general pediatric training programs that were recently established and now continue to graduate pediatric residents in low-income countries. Lessons derived from these programs may help guide practice and research for other centers seeking to establish similar programs.
  5,145 542 5
Hand hygiene and health care hierarchy: A resident's perspective
Vic Sahai, Karen Eden, Shari Glustein
September-December 2014, 27(3):297-298
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152195  PMID:25758396
  4,194 616 -
Globalisation of social media : An unfair occurrence in medical education?
Neel Sharma
September-December 2014, 27(3):304-304
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152201  PMID:25758400
  3,707 513 1
Beyond evidence-based medicine : Need for a new paradigm in patient care delivery
Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera
September-December 2014, 27(3):302-303
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152200  PMID:25758399
  3,676 523 2
Recent 2015 changes to the UK foundation training application: A deterrent to medical student research?
Michael M Modell, Thomas Snell, Smruti Varothayasingham, Stephen D Robinson
September-December 2014, 27(3):300-301
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152199  PMID:25758398
  3,755 387 1
A plea to preserve the sanctity of a "Textbook"
Chandrasekaran Venkatesh, Bethou Adhisivam
September-December 2014, 27(3):299-299
DOI:10.4103/1357-6283.152197  PMID:25758397
  3,067 387 -