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   2006| September-December  | Volume 19 | Issue 3  
    Online since March 13, 2013

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Learning Strategies used by Cardiology Residents: Assessment of Learning Styles and their Correlations
Alberto Alves De Lima, Maria Ines Bettati, Sergio Baratta, Mariano Falconi, Fernando Sokn, Amanda Galli, Carlos Barrero, Arturo Cagide, Ricardo Iglesias
September-December 2006, 19(3):289-297
Objective: To identify the learning styles of a group of cardiology residents (R) undergoing a training program at the University of Buenos Aires and to identify correlations of these styles. Methods: Statistical data were obtained through a 120-question survey developed by Vermunt and colleagues, which identified four different learning styles: constructiondirected; reproduction-directed; application-directed; and undirected. Four variables were identified [gender, previous experience as a teaching assistant (TA) in medical school, university final average (FA) and the public or private institution/centre of origin] in order to analyse level of correlation with learning styles (LS). Between April 2001 and April 2002, 149 residents (R) completed the survey. Average age was 29 (+2.7) years old; with 63% being men. Findings: The predominant LS were oriented toward knowledge application. In terms of variables, no differences regarding gender were detected; the R with TA showed undirected LS characteristics; those with a low FA registered a tendency towards reproduction-directed LS; and those residents at public/state medical centres indicated construction-directed LS tendencies. Conclusion: An application-directed learning style predominates in this group of residents. Information regarding learning styles can provide foundations upon which arguments can be made for changes in education that are traditionally not evidencebased.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  620 100 -
A Collaborative Approach to Developing a Validated Competence-Based Curriculum for Health Professions Students
Alice M Tse, Louise K Iwaishi, Christopher A King, Rosanne C Harrigan
September-December 2006, 19(3):331-344
Problem: Curricula are developed to educate health professions students to provide efficient and effective health services. In addition to learning their disciplinary perspective, today's students must master the concepts of multidisciplinary team care. Traditionally, curriculum was developed based primarily on the perspectives of the discipline faculty, administration and accrediting agencies. However, now there are multiple groups (other academic educators, consumers and employers of health care providers) who may hold differing perspectives about outcomes expected from these programs. Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to use an innovative methodology to generate and validate a curriculum for health professions students from multiple disciplines. Method: A multi-phased method using focus groups, surveys, dissemination and affirmation was presented to identify the concepts and best practices that should be included. Results: Several performance-based themes evolved during the interviews and a questionnaire was generated. Academic educators, consumers and employers of health care providers indicated agreement that the components on the survey were realistic and important for health professions students to achieve. Thus, outcomes for a curriculum were validated. The faculty rated several components of the curriculum as less realistic for students to achieve than did the consumers and employers. This investigation suggests it may be necessary for faculty to assist providers and parents in developing more realistic expectations about what students can achieve during their educational program. The approach used in this current project moves the field of the health professions curriculum development to a different level when compared with the traditional curriculum development approaches and should be used by others concerned with multi-professional education to assure the validity of the curricula.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  522 106 -
Improving the Performance of the Health Service Delivery System? Lessons from the Towards Unity for Health Projects
Oliver Groene, Luis A Branda
September-December 2006, 19(3):298-307
Context: The World Health Organization developed the Towards Unity for Health (TUFH) strategy in 2000 for the improvement of health system performance. Twelve projects worldwide were supported to put this strategy into practice. A standard evaluation and monitoring framework was developed on the basis of which project coordinators prepared technical progress reports. Objectives: To review the utility and effectiveness of the evaluation criteria recommended by TUFH and their application in four of the original twelve projects. Methods: We reviewed status reports provided by European project coordinators and developed a standardized reporting template to extract information using original TUFH evaluation criteria. Results: The original TUFH evaluation framework is very comprehensive and has only partly been followed by the field projects. The evaluation strategies employed by the projects were insufficient to demonstrate the connections between the intervention and the desired process improvements, and few of the evaluation measures address outcomes. Discussion: The evaluation strategies employed by the projects are limited in allowing us to associate the intervention with the desired process improvements. Few measures address outcomes. The evaluation of complex community interventions poses many challenges, however, tools are available to assess impact on structures and process, and selected outcome indicators may be identified to monitor progress in future projects. Conclusion: Based on the review of evaluation status of the TUFH projects and resources available we recommend moving away from uniform evaluation and towards monitoring minimal, context-specific performance indicators criteria.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  528 97 -
Career Preference of Final Year Medical Students of Ziauddin Medical University
Nighat Huda, Sabira Yousuf
September-December 2006, 19(3):345-353
Purpose: The study aims to identify the career preferences of the final year medical student as well as to determine gender differences in career choices. Participants: The participants were 232 final year MMBS students of the first five classes of Ziauddin Medical University. Method: A questionnaire was designed that identified student's choice of specialty, location preferences, and reasons influencing career preferences. Percentages and chisquare were used to determine differences in career preferences of students. Results: Students chose internal medicine, surgery, and pediatrics as their first three career choices. Clinical specialties were highly rated as compared to family medicine. Personal interest was ranked as the most influencing factor that contributed to choice of specialty. Most respondents preferred working in Pakistan as compared to overseas, and for practice selected, private setup was more favored compared to other settings. Gender differences were found in career preferences. Conclusion: The impact of the innovative community education programme is not clearly evident in the study, indicating that several other factors contribute towards decisions regarding career. A critical review by the university is required to strengthen the fields that are being overlooked by the students. A follow-up study would be beneficial to determine the changing trends in career preferences.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  501 122 -
Development and Implementation of a Nutrition Education Program for Medical Students: A New Challenge
Ronit Endevelt, Danit R Shahar, Yaakov Henkin
September-December 2006, 19(3):321-330
Context: Teaching nutrition to medical students is constrained by limitations in curricular time and competition with other topics. Objectives: To identify time slots and teaching methods for incorporating nutrition into the medical school curriculum, determine students' nutritional knowledge following the program, and their perception of the effectiveness of the program. Methods: A nutritional workshop was added to the clinical experience weeks of secondyear medical students. The first class included 66 students and the second class included 56 students. In order to fully acquaint the students with nutrition, four topics were included: nutritional policy, dietary assessment, nutritional recommendations, and obesity. Students were encouraged to actively participate in the program which included dietary intake interviews, debates regarding nutritional treatments, and actual practice in class. The main outcome measures were nutritional knowledge and evaluation of the program by the students. Findings: Over 90% of the students answered the knowledge questions correctly. The effectiveness of the training was graded (on a scale of 1-7) between 3.7-5.4 in the first year and 3.4-5.7 in the second year. Conclusions: The ten-hour nutritional workshops within the clinical weeks were wellreceived by second-year medical students. Using cases relevant to the students' age seems to enhance their interest in the program.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  465 97 -
Description and Evaluation of a Clerkship in International Health and Medicine
Alan Jotkowitz, Shirley Rosen, Sheila Warshawsky, Michael Karplus
September-December 2006, 19(3):354-362
Background and Objectives: In 1998 Ben-Gurion University, in collaboration with Columbia University, inaugurated the first medical school with the express purpose of training students in International Health and Medicine (IHM). The highlight of the program is the two-month clerkship in IHM. The purpose of this paper is to describe the IHM clerkship and report the preliminary results of an evaluation. Methods: To evaluate the impact of the clerkship on the students' attitudes and knowledge of IHM, the students were asked to complete a previously validated selfassessment questionnaire before and after the clerkship. Results: Ninety-six students participated in the IHMclerkship in the first 3 years. The mean age of the students was 29.4±4 and 53%were female. Comparison of the student's answers before their departure and after their return showed a significant difference in 5 of 64 items on the questionnaire. There was also a significant increase in the overall scores of the female students but no change in the scores of the male students pre- and post-clerkship. Discussion and Conclusions: Our results show that students who completed the clerkship modestly increased their knowledge of some aspects of IHM as measured by the survey. Further studies on the long-term impact of IHM experiences are needed in parallel with efforts to increase medical students' exposure to IHM.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  426 86 -
Perception of Students about the Problem-based Learning Sessions Conducted for Medical and Dental Schools' Students of Universiti Sains Malaysia
Arunodaya Barman, Rogayah Jaafar, Nyi Nyi Naing
September-December 2006, 19(3):363-368
Full text not available  [PDF]
  341 114 -
Medical Professionalism and Social Accountability in Medical Education
Margaret Gadon, Michael Glasser
September-December 2006, 19(3):287-288
Full text not available  [PDF]
  327 117 -
An Interprofessional Communication Skills Lab: A Pilot Project
Penny Salvatori, Patricia Mahoney, Carl Delottinville
September-December 2006, 19(3):380-384
Full text not available  [PDF]
  264 127 -
The World Health Report 20061: Working together for Health2
JJ Guilbert
September-December 2006, 19(3):385-387
Full text not available  [PDF]
  246 136 -
Early Barriers for University Rural Clinical Placements
Joseph V Turner, Jonathan Lane
September-December 2006, 19(3):375-379
Full text not available  [PDF]
  271 109 -
Problems Encountered with a Pilot Online Attendance Record and Feedback Scheme for Medical Students
Daniel W Wheeler, Kim D Whittlestone, Andrew J Johnston, Helen L Smith
September-December 2006, 19(3):369-374
Full text not available  [PDF]
  272 95 -
Annual meeting of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM)
Michael Glasser
September-December 2006, 19(3):411-411
Full text not available  [PDF]
  250 102 -
Further Reading: A Selection of Titles from Other Journals

September-December 2006, 19(3):407-410
Full text not available  [PDF]
  249 102 -
HIV, Health, & Your Community: A Guide for Action
Vanessa E Ford
September-December 2006, 19(3):399-401
Full text not available  [PDF]
  254 88 -
What can we do for Childhood Obesity? Let's go Dancing!
Rita Tanas, Marcolongo Renzo
September-December 2006, 19(3):388-389
Full text not available  [PDF]
  235 102 -
Co-Editors' Notes
Margaret Gadon, Michael Glasser
September-December 2006, 19(3):285-286
Full text not available  [PDF]
  234 101 -
Breastfeeding: The Biological Option. A self learning module for students of the health professions
Lise Weisberger
September-December 2006, 19(3):401-403
Full text not available  [PDF]
  232 98 -
In the News
Jan van Dalen
September-December 2006, 19(3):404-406
Full text not available  [PDF]
  239 88 -
How to Survive Peer Review
Joshua Freeman
September-December 2006, 19(3):398-399
Full text not available  [PDF]
  231 90 -
An Interview of Cosme Ordóñez Carceller
Jane Westberg
September-December 2006, 19(3):390-397
Full text not available  [PDF]
  225 92 -
International Diary

September-December 2006, 19(3):412-414
Full text not available  [PDF]
  221 93 -