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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-70

Flipped classroom as a learner-centered approach to teach pharmacology

Department of Pharmacology, SUTAMS, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Date of Submission30-Jan-2021
Date of Decision23-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance29-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2023

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ambili Remesh
Department of Pharmacology, SUTAMS, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/efh.efh_57_21

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How to cite this article:
Remesh A. Flipped classroom as a learner-centered approach to teach pharmacology. Educ Health 2022;35:69-70

How to cite this URL:
Remesh A. Flipped classroom as a learner-centered approach to teach pharmacology. Educ Health [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 6];35:69-70. Available from:

Dear Editor,

The medical curriculum in India has recently changed to a competency-based perspective, and now the greater emphasis is on learner-centric approaches, active learning strategies, more interaction with teachers, and more interaction with peers with flexibility in time. The teacher's role is to facilitate student progress, provide ample opportunities for self-directed learning, and encourage students to be lifelong learners. Yet, there is a concern about whether students gain sufficient training through interactive lectures. The increasing student-to-teacher ratio will require the adoption of skillful teaching–learning methods. Flipped classroom teaching has recently gained much attention since it focuses on self-directed learning, critical thinking, and satisfying students of different learning styles.[1]

In this context, we conducted an intervention-based study in the department of pharmacology in a tertiary care teaching hospital, after ethics committee approval. Sixty students (a total of six exposures to each student) were enrolled in the study using a convenience sampling method. We compared this modified teaching technique with lectures for teaching pharmacology and found it to be more student-centered. According to student feedback, overall satisfaction was reported as higher with flipped sessions.

Preparation time for a flipped session was less when students used handouts and notes as the study material; however, most preferred the use of videos for learning before class [Figure 1]. Even though preparation time was longer with the videos, students tended to prefer more visually appreciable and auditory information from videos for increased understanding.[2]
Figure 1: Comparison of the flipped method using various teaching materials

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From open-ended questionnaire responses, student participants indicated that having the basic idea of the study topic before class made it easy to move along with the teacher, and improved memory and understanding. Prior exposure to teaching material motivated students for learning and provided a deeper understanding of the subject.[3] Students reported that flipped classes were actually reducing their learning time, in addition to increasing their critical thinking ability and performance on examinations. More training in communication skills, group interactions, and teamwork, which is emphasized in the competency-based medical education curriculum, is possible by conducting flipped classes.

Overall, the flipped class was found to be more effective for students in learning pharmacology. The effectiveness of flipped classes was differently related to various teaching materials provided to students before class. Our study provides evidence to include this method of teaching in the newer curricula for short and relevant topics which require less preclass preparation efforts by students. This learner-centered method relies on ample planning by the faculty to reinforce the concepts and keep students well-motivated.


This project was done as part of the ACME course at the MCI Nodal Centre for National Faculty Development. I would like to thank the following: Dr. R. Sajith Kumar (Convenor and Head of Nodal Centre, Kottayam), Dr.T.R. Radha, Dr. Mary Chacko, and Dr.Suresh, of the Nodal Center, Jisha Raj Biostatistician and Department of Pharmacology for their support.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Butler JA. Use of teaching methods within the lecture format. Med Teach 1992;14:11-25.  Back to cited text no. 1
Brame CJ. Effective educational videos: Principles and guidelines for maximizing student learning from video content. CBE Life Sci Educ 2016;15:es6.  Back to cited text no. 2
Maheshwari P, Seth N. Effectiveness of flipped classrooms. Int J Educ Manage 2019;33:860-85.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Figure 1]


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