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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-24

Psychometric properties of the dundee ready educational environment measure in a sample of Ghanaian Medical Students

Department of Health Professions Education and Innovative Learning, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana

Correspondence Address:
Victor Mogre
Education Unit, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, P. O. Box: TL 1883, Tamale
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1357-6283.178921

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Background: The Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) has been widely accepted and recognized for the assessment of the educational environment in a variety of health professions education programs. Concerns regarding the psychometric properties of the DREEM have been raised. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the DREEM in a sample of Ghanaian medical students following a problem-based learning curriculum. Methods: A sample of 234 second to fourth year medical students of the University for Development Studies, School of Medicine and Health Sciences were invited to complete the DREEM questionnaire. Psychometric measures employed included Cronbach's alpha analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Results: The internal consistency for the overall DREEM was 0.92. Apart from two subscales that had Cronbach's alpha values < 0.70, the remainder had values ranging from 0.73 – 0.78. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original five factor structure of the DREEM. Large significant correlation coefficients were found between the five factors raising concerns about the independency of the individual subscales. Exploratory factor analysis suggested various factor solutions ranging from 4 to 14 factors. The four factor structure was interpretable and was maintained. All of the four factors achieved eigenvalues > 1, and in total they accounted for 37.6% of the variance. Alpha values for the subscales of the new four factor structure ranged from 0.618 – 0.915. Discussion: The overall internal consistency of the DREEM was found to be excellent. The internal consistency of the individual subscales was variable, as two subscales had alpha values < 0.70 and the remainder exceeding 0.70. The original five factor structure of the DREEM was not supported. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a four factor solution as a possible alternative to the five factor structure of the DREEM.

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